REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 84-88

Use of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in the management of bladder cancer


1 Department of Urology, North Devon Hospital NHS Trust, Barnstaple, UK
2 Princess Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust, Harlow, UK

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad Faisal Khan
North Devon Hospital NHS Trust, Raleigh Park, Barnstaple EX31, 4JB
UK
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/HUAJ.HUAJ_5_20

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Over the years, a distant effort has been made to find new prognostic biomarkers in the assessment of accurate response to treatment and detection of recurrences of bladder cancer. Among them, the carbohydrate-rich glycoprotein, Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 has shown some usefulness as it is linked with the tumour aggressiveness and the prognosis of disease. Aim of this study is to review available evidence about the role of CA 19-9 in diagnosis, staging and prognosis of bladder cancer. After careful review of the related articles, a total of 16 useful and valued studies were found on the database. These studies evaluated relation of CA 19-9 to various different aspects of bladder cancer. These aspects include use of CA 19-9 as a tool for detection of bladder cancer, its role in the assessment of the prognosis at diagnosis and also looked at the significance of the CA 19-9 in the response to treatment of bladder cancer. These studies indicate that CA19-9 sensitivity and specificity was 71.6 and 91.6 in high-grade tumour and sensitivity of 74% and 83% in Ta and T1 tumours. Serum levels of > 29 U/ml are associated with shorter survival time and carried a 2.54 higher risk of death. High levels in metastatic disease are associated with increase response to chemotherapy. Although these results are encouraging, but due to the limited evidence, there can be no strong recommendation for use of the biomarker CA 19-9 and further studies are needed to establish a useful link.


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